Purpose of Laboratory Testing

  • Diagnosis of Disease
    Test and Treat
  • Eradication of Disease
    Test and Cull
  • Prevention of Disease
    Test and Don’t Buy

Laboratory Diagnostics

  • Major Organ Function
    Blood Chemistries
    Organ Specific Enzymes/Proteins
  • Hematological
    Complete Blood Count(CBC)
    White Blood Cells
    Red Blood Cells
  • Hormone Levels

Infectious Diseases

  • Bacteria
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/Caseous Lymphadenitis
    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis/Johne’s Disease
    Brucella sp.
  • Rickettsia
    Coxiella burnetii/Q Fever
  • Virus
    Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis
  • Parasite
    Neospora caninum

Infectious Disease Diagnosis

Infecting Agent Isolation/Identification
Bacteria Fungi Virus Culture and IDCulture and IDCulture/ID of Genetic material
Pros Cons
Definitive Results Slow (days to weeks) Fresh and viable sample required False Negative results Expense

Infectious Disease Diagnosis

Disease Specific Antibody Detection
Infection induces immune response to fight the infection. Part of this response is the production of antibodies that specifically attach to and attack the infecting organism.
Serological lab test are designed to identify these antibodies as indicators of infection.
Pros Cons
Fast lab time 2-3 hours Accurate Inexpensive Blood Sample May detect antibodies from past infections or other exposure.

Serological Assay Techniques

  • Agglutination Antigen Antibody complexes which are visible to the human eye
  • Precipitation Antigen Antibody complexes which fall out of solution
  • Complement Fixation Antigen antibody reaction assay which results in cell lyses
Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay ELISA

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis

Retro virus (similar to HIV, FIV, EIA)

  • Transmission infected animal’s blood cells Milk Blood Saliva Semen
  • Symptoms
    • Arthritis form: swollen knees hard udder decreased milk production shortened productive life span
    • Encephalitis form: Paralysis and death
  • Treatment None

Swollen Knees In CAE Positive Goat

Arthritis in CAE Positive Goat

Hard Udder in CAE Positive Goat

Encephalitis in CAE Positive Goat

Caseous Lymphadenitis

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  • Transmission Draining fluid/exudate from abscesses enter via: Oral intake (licking abscess) Breaks in the skin
  • Symptoms Subcutaneous abscesses Internal abscesses
  • Treatment Lance/Drain/Disinfect Inject with Formalin

CL Abscess

CL Abscess

CL abscess in Lung of Goat

Johne’s Disease

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Infection of the lining of the Intestinal tract leading to chronic inflammation and loss of ability to absorb nutrients
  • Transmission Oral intake of infected feces
  • Symptoms Moderate to fast loss of body condition with good appetite Diarrhea
  • Treatment None
  • Eradication Strategy Test and Cull

Johne’s Disease

Johne’s Disease

Zoonotic Diseases

Diseases of animals that infect and harm Humans

Q fever

Rickettsia Coxiella burnettii Transmitted by birthing fluids of infected animals Symptoms
  • Goats Late term Abortions Weak kids
  • Humans Rash and flu like symptoms occasionally fatal, vegetative cardiac valve destruction
Treatment: Various antibiotics including Tetracycline


Parasite Toxoplasma gondii Transmitted in milk and feces of infected animals Symptoms
  • Goats None
  • Humans Severe birth defects
Treatment: Various antibiotics including Tetracycline

Holding goat for blood Collection

Holding goat for blood Collection

One person blood collection

One person blood collection

One person blood collection